Send this link to friend !

Stolica.ru

IELTS minitest

IELTS

Match the correct answer. Format of this test nothing like real IELTS, but your score may be the same.

Listening.
Part 1. Click on first sound file when ready. Answer questions while listening
1. What was the reason for the man to stop woman ?
A. to meet B. to make photos
C. to offer book D. to sell photos
2. Where does the woman live ?
A. California B. New York
C. Carribeans D. Bronx
3. Boy will reach the age of consent not early than in_______ years
A. 11 B. 4
C. 20 D. 6
4.Woman will loking for____
A. new job in modelling business B. man's works
C. letter from man D. interesting albums
5.Girl is_________
A. not mentioned B. international student
C. tourist from Greece D. postgraduate student
6. Who is father of the man ?
A. policeman B. doctor
C. peasant D.driver
7. Is man older than his brother ?
A. they are twins B. not
C. yes D. info not given
8. Is the man married ?
A. not mentioned B. divorced
C. Yes D. No
9. Does the girl live with her family now ?
A.Yes B.she's an orphan
C. No D. Yes, but is going to leave
10. The girl is from___
A. Greece B. Spain
C. Bronx D. not mentioned
11. The man is have to leave_______
A. because he's busy B. to meet his doctor
C. to see his couple D. not mentioned
12.The girl's name is
A. Allexandra B. Alexandreen
C. Alexandra D. Aleksandra
Part 2. Click on second sound file when ready. Answer questions while listening.
13. Constitution is a single document in ____
A. United Kingdom B. United States
C. all over the world D. nowhere
14. In general the term Constitution is____
A. law for citizens B. ways to govern country
C. unchangeable stem of legislation D. not mentioned
15. The Constitution of the United States was validated in _______
A. 1789 B. 1949
C. 1787 D. not mentioned
16. Constitutions in US,Germany, France are
A. written documents B. almost the same
C. adopted from US constitution D. not mentioned
17. In England ______
A. there are no constitution B. constitution was not legislated
C. constitution was created by Alexis de Tocqueville D. constitution is a collection of laws
18.The Bill of Rights is
A. most important law B. least important law
C.one of the most important laws D. unworkable now
19. The sources of English constitutional law are _____
A.complicated B. interesting
C. various D. old
20. Hansard is
A. minute B. record
C. parlament D. newspaper
21. The ennglish constitution is
A. rigid B. not flexible
C. flexible D. written
22.Fields in which Parliament is forbidden to legislate:______
A.none B.changes to constitution
C. private property D. public relations
Part 3. Click on third sound file when ready. Answer questions while listening
23. The Stratford Monument is located
A. inside Holy Trinity Church B. behind Holy Trinity Church
C. close to the poets grave D. near the authors grave
24. The monument
A. shows old Shakespeare B. shows young Shakespeare
C. is very interesting D. is very expensive
25. Martin Droeshout was
A. a young friend of Shakespeare B. fifty years younger than Shakespeare
C. an artist who illustrated Shakespeare's publication D. born after Shakespeare's death.
26.The Chandos Portrait_____
A. was made by Sir William Davenant B. is claimed to be a true portrait
C.was made in traditional manner D.belongs to Thomas Betterton
27. The Soest Portrait ____
A. is a copy of Chandos Portrait B.is the oldest portrait of Shakespeare
C. was made by Shakespeare's counterpart D. is, professionally, the best portrait of Shakespeare
28. A Funeral Elegie______
A.was unknown till 1983 B.was edited by Donald Foster
C.was a theme PhD thesis. D.stored at the University of California
29. Why the elegy was supposed to be Shakespeare's hand ?
A.Shakespeare's publisher proved it. B. not mentioned
C.it was indicated in 21-page pamphlet stored at Oxford's Bodleian Library. D. Shakespeare's signature was found in the text.
30. What was the reason to use computer program ?
A. to analyse the elegy B.to decipher writing
C. to make optical recognition D. not mentioned
31.The William Peter dead in the cause of _________
A. homosexual relationships B. gunshot wound
C. punctured wound D. theatrical connections
32.The summary of this essay.
A. It is necessary to shrine our literary heritage B. Shakespeare's works were analised for many years
C. There are still many unknown works of Shakespeare. D.It was proved that Shakespeare was bisexual
Reading

Text 1. Sea change. Coral is dying to tell us something.

Spend no more than 20 minutes answering questions 33-48.

1. Human activity in coastal areas is responsible for killing coral, say a pair of researchers who've been tracking coral disease. This means that local measures such as reducing soil run-off or sewage discharges might help save corals that fall ill. Sick coral also provides an early warning that entire ecosystems are in danger, according to the researchers.

2. For 20 years, marine biologists have watched in dismay as corals succumbed to a dozen apparently new infections. Now a global map of coral diseases has pointed the finger at human development of coastal zones.

3. Most coral diseases are known by their symptoms, such as white band or yellow pox. According to Laurie Richardson of Florida International University in Miami, only three of these coral ailments have a known cause.

4. The diseases can be devastating. During the 1980s, white band disease, caused by a bacterium related to cholera, nearly wiped out Acropora corals across the Caribbean, where they had dominated coral communities for at least 4000 years. The soil bacterium Aspergillus causes waves of mass mortality among gorgonian corals, or sea fans.

5. But until now, no one understood the pattern of disease: why Caribbean reefs were the hardest hit, for example. So to learn more about the causes of coral disease, Ed Green of the World Conservation Monitoring Centre in Cambridge and Andrew Bruckner of the US National Marine Fisheries Service in Silver Spring, Maryland, mapped coral diseases in the same way human epidemics are plotted.

6. They conclude that human activity is probably the major factor in areas already predicted to be suffering environmental stress. In the Caribbean, they found disease was most prevalent in areas threatened by a range of human activities including intense coastal development and overfishing.

7. The researchers suggest sick coral might be a good early warning signal for creeping damage to entire marine ecosystems, which can be hard to detect. "Coral diseases are big and visible," says Green. "If the relationship holds, they could signal when protective measures are needed." He likens corals around the world to canaries in coal mines. "And this canary is singing," he warns.

33. What is the best title for paragraph 2 ?
A. Corals warn B. Known diseases
C. Scientists prevent diseases D. People ruin ecosystem
E. Main reason of coral diseases F. Attack of new infections
G. The aftermath of diseases H. Scientists study reasons
34.What is the best title for paragraph 3 ?
A. Corals warn B. Known diseases
C.Scientists prevent diseases D. People ruin ecosystem
E. Main reason of coral diseases F. Attack of new infections
G. The aftermath of diseases H. Scientists study reasons
35. What is the best title for paragraph 4 ?
A. Corals warn B. Known diseases
C. Scientists prevent diseases D. People ruin ecosystem
E. Main reason of coral diseases F. Attack of new infections
G. The aftermath of diseases H. Scientists study reasons
36. What is the best title for paragraph 5 ? occurrence.
A. Corals warn B. Known diseases
C. Scientists prevent diseases D. People ruin ecosystem
E. Main reason of coral diseases F. Attack of new infections
G. The aftermath of diseases H. Scientists study reasons
37. What is the best title for paragraph 6 ?
A. Corals warn B. Known diseases
C. Scientists prevent diseases D. People ruin ecosystem
E. Main reason of coral diseases F. Attack of new infections
G. The aftermath of diseases H. Scientists study reasons
38. What is the best title for paragraph 7 ?
A. Corals warn B. Known diseases
C. Scientists prevent diseases D. People ruin ecosystem
E. Main reason of coral diseases F. Attack of new infections
G. The aftermath of diseases H. Scientists study reasons
39.People and corals coexist in harmony
A. True B. False
C. Not Given
40. US National Marine Biology Institute provide serious research on corals diseases
A. True B. False
C. Not Given
41. Intensities of coral diseases and technological impact have the same tendency
A. True B. False
C. Not Given
42.All coral diseases are known by their symptoms
A. True B. False
C. Not Given
43. Laurie Richardson is a leading specialist on coral diseases
A. True B. False
C. Not Given
44. Acropora corals suffered from cholera during the 1980s.
A. True B. False
C. Not Given
45. Gorgonian corals and sea fans were nearly wiped by bacterium Aspergillus.
A. True B. False
C. Not given
46.Ed Green and Andrew Bruckner studied why Carribeans were hit hardly than other territories.
A. True B. False
C. Not Given
47. Coastal engineering works could cause coral diseases
A. True B. False
C. Not Given
48. Corals signals about ecological problems.
A. True B. False
C. Not Given

Text 2. Digital Communications via Radio

Spend no more than 20 minutes answering questions 49-64

1. Within recent years the state of the art in digital radio communications has reached the point where consistently reliable high speed systems can be set up at a very reasonable cost. Furthermore, the elimination of morse code as a requirement for an amateur radio license now allows for some interesting possibilities.

2. The advantage of radio over telephone for digital communications is the simple fact that you don't have to worry about the phone companies or phone bills. Using radio costs nothing except for the initial outlay in equipment. Also, activities such as networks and large-scale digital conferences are accomplished easier when done via radio. Radio communications eliminates the need to commit telecommunications fraud, a common downfall of phone users. Finally, freed from the restriction of phone lines, we can begin to see truly portable operation. You can literally be anywhere and be able to get into the net. Complete digital radio communications systems exist that can be fit into a briefcase.

3. A radio signal is also better suited for transmission than a phone line. Due to the restricted bandwidth and noise encountered on a phone circut the speed of digital commo is severely restricted. With radio one can have an almost unlimited bandwidth for incredible data communications speeds (some microwave links have data transmission speeds upwards of 1.4 million bits per second), and can increase power to compensate for noise conditions.

4. While it is often said that radio isn't as secure as telecom, in reality with the proper encryption it is more secure than listening to a phone due to the simple fact that you are no longer using a telecommunications carrier's network. However , seeing the "security measures" on many "underground" BBSes leads me to believe that even an unencrypted radio data network running on 152.24 Mhz would offer an increase in security. One an also randomly change the physical characteristics of the digital signal (mark/space frequencies, modulation type, communications frequency, RF power level) easier on radio to confuse an intercepter.

5. There are various protocols being used via radio today. All of these protocols are in common use by amateur radio operators, are easy to employ, and are readily and inexpensively available. In fact, a complete low-end communications digital amateur radio setup can be had for under $100.

6. The oldest communications protocol used is Baudot. This is a five bit code running at either 45 or 75 baud and is mostly used on the shortwave frequencies (under 30 Mhz.) It is a five bit code and as such is unsuitable for any type of computer file transfers. It is also very inexpensive. Traditional ASCII is also used in various forms. Besides being used with different error checking protocols it is also used in the traditional form on shortwave running at 110 and 300 baud. While not as noise resistant and reliable as Baudot on shortwave it does allow for faster communications and for file transfers at nation/worldwide distances with a minimum of equipment. ASCII also doesn't require 5 to 8 bit translation as does baudot for computer use. (In the old days, people used mechanical teletypewriters for data commo and a 5 bit code was simple to work with, given the equipment. Computers were still big clunky things that took up whole rooms.) Someone with moderate knowledge in electronics could make an ASCII radio modem with an XR-2206 and XR-2211 FSK chips for under $20! There is also an error checking form of ASCII used on shortwave called AMTOR (AMateur Teleprinting Over Radio) which is a variation of the STIOR system used by ships.

7. Finally, we have packet. Packet is a radio based data communications protocol used by ham radio operators for their own computer network that stretches over most of the country. It uses ASCII with a communications protocol called AX.25. AX.25 is a ham radio adaptation of the X.25 protocol used by Telenet and other telecom based data networks. Packet is very active on VHF and UHF frequencies (2 meters, 220 Mhz, 440 Mhz., and above) and is ideally suited to these frequencies. The major east coast ham packet network EASTNET runs from Maine to Miami and contains hundreds of relay stations (digipeaters) and BBSes as well as gateways; stations which provide crossband operation to smaller more local nets running on a different frequency or to shortwave stations which provide connections to the west coast network. There are now also ham satellites in orbit which can extend the range to Europe and other parts of the globe. Access is either directly through the satellite or via a land based gateway in the net. Packet allows for more reliable connections and more portable operation. Instead of running a shortwave transceiver that requires a large power supply and antenna one can fit a laptop computer, TNC (Terminal Node Controller; a modem for packet operation), a VHF/UHF handheld, and a small gel-cell battery in a briefcase. This set-up will go 10-20 miles which is enough of a distance to get to a digipeater from anywhere in the U.S. and access the net.

8. Radio modems/TNCs are available from ham suppliers along with the respective radios. Check out ham magazines (73, QST, CQ) for supplier addresses and equipment reviews. Also check out the sources listed in my previous articles for more genera l info on radio communications and getting a ham license.

9. As you see, radio offers as good if not better digital communications capability than the telecommunications network does, with better capability in security. Should you be seriously interested in digital commo it worth your while to check out radio as a means of transmission.

49. What is the best title for paragraph 2 ?
A. Where to find equipment B. Avalability of radios for ham
C. Transmission speed is accelerating D. New opportunities for radio
E. Benefits of telephone F. Try it yourself
G. Different solutions in data transfer H. Digiradio's implementation
K. Benefits of wireless communications L. Is radio secure
50. What is the best title for paragraph 3 ?
A. Where to find equipment B. Avalability of radios for ham
C. Transmission speed is accelerating D. New opportunities for radio
E. Benefits of telephone F. Try it yourself
G. Different solutions in data transfer H. Digiradio's implementation
K. Benefits of wireless communications L. Is radio secure
51. What is the best title for paragraph 4 ?
A. Where to find equipment B. Avalability of radios for ham
C. Transmission speed is accelerating D. New opportunities for radio
E. Benefits of telephone F. Try it yourself
G. Different solutions in data transfer H. Digiradio's implementation
K. Benefits of wireless communications L. Is radio secure
52. What is the best title for paragraph 5 ?
A. Where to find equipment B. Avalability of radios for ham
C. Transmission speed is accelerating D. New opportunities for radio
E. Benefits of telephone F. Try it yourself
G. Different solutions in data transfer H. Digiradio's implementation
K. Benefits of wireless communications L. Is radio secure
53. What is the best title for paragraph 6 ?
A. Where to find equipment B. Avalability of radios for ham
C. Transmission speed is accelerating D. New opportunities for radio
E. Benefits of telephone F. Try it yourself
G. Different solutions in data transfer H. Digiradio's implementation
K. Benefits of wireless communications L. Is radio secure
54. What is the best title for paragraph 7 ?
A. Where to find equipment B. Avalability of radios for ham
C. Transmission speed is accelerating D. New opportunities for radio
E. Benefits of telephone F. Try it yourself
G. Different solutions in data transfer H. Digiradio's implementation
K. Benefits of wireless communications L. Is radio secure
55. What is the best title for paragraph 8 ?
A. Where to find equipment B. Avalability of radios for ham
C. Transmission speed is accelerating D. New opportunities for radio
E. Benefits of telephone F. Try it yourself
G. Different solutions in data transfer H. Digiradio's implementation
K. Benefits of wireless communications L. Is radio secure
56. What is the best title for paragraph 9 ?
A. Where to find equipment B. Avalability of radios for ham
C. Transmission speed is accelerating D. New opportunities for radio
E. Benefits of telephone F. Try it yourself
G. Different solutions in data transfer H. Digiradio's implementation
K. Benefits of wireless communications L. Is radio secure
57. Morse code kept down development of digital communications.
A. True B. False
C. Not given
58. Radio make communications cheaper.
A. True B. False
C. Not given
59. Radio networks are cheaper than traditional
A. True B. False
C. Not given
60. Telephone line is no more suited for transmition
A. True B. False
C. Not given
61. Microwave links are videly used for data transmitting.
A. True B. False
C. Not given
62. 152.24 Mhz is very secure frequency.
A. True B. False
C. Not given
63. Computer file transfers use 8 bit code.
A. True B. False
C. Not given
64. EASTNET works at VHF and UHF frequencies.
A. True B. False
C. Not given

Text 3. Global Climate.

Spend no more than 20 minutes answering questions 65-80

1. A 150-year record of freeze and ice breakup dates for lakes and rivers in such far-flung locales as Wisconsin and Japan chronicles a recent climate warming trend in the Northern Hemisphere, say researchers in the 8 September 2000 issue of the journal, Science. The study, conducted by an international research team and led by John J. Magnuson of the University of Wisconsin in Madison, analyzed historical records of annual first freeze and first thaw events observed for 39 time series from 26 lake and river sites in the United States, Canada, Finland, Switzerland, Russia, and Japan.

2. The researchers found consistent evidence of later freeze and earlier breakup of ice on these waterways over the 150-year span (1846-1995) covered by these historical records. During this interval, the date of first freeze was postponed by an average of 9.8 days, while thaw occurred an average of 8.7 days earlier. These changes correspond to a 1.8 degrees Centigrade increase in air temperature over 150 years, the researchers calculated.

3. A few of the study's longer-term records, from Finland, Japan, and Siberia, suggest that the trend toward a shrinking period of ice cover may have been under way as early as the 16th century, although the trend seems to have accelerated in the last 150 years. This temperature increase is consistent with a scenario of global warming caused by greenhouse gases, according to the authors, but could be related to other "drivers" of climate change, such as fluctuations in solar activity, as well. "This is exciting as a climate indicator because it's a simple, direct measure of climate change that humans can relate to," said Magnuson.

4. "Climate change can be relatively abstract, but when these changes are easily observed in places as familiar as a nearby lake or river, they become more relevant." The broad geographical range of sites with easily measured freeze and thaw data, combined with yearly records that typically stretch back further in time than air temperature data, make patterns of lake and river ice cover a unique proxy for climate change, say the researchers. Magnuson and colleagues combed through a variety of historical records of lake and river freeze and thaw to compile the database for their analysis. These records exist for a number of reasons, including religious, cultural, and commercial purposes, said the Science authors.

5. At Lake Constance in Central Europe, a centuries-old record of ice cover has been linked to the transport of a Madonna figure between two churches--one in Germany and one in Switzerland--located on opposite sides of the frozen lake. Similar records exist at Lake Suwa in Japan, marking the appearance of the spring thaw that created ramparts of ice connecting male and female Shinto temples across the water.

6. At other sites, recorded freeze and thaw dates were important to agriculture, and to trade on the transportation corridors created by the rivers and lakes. In some cases, Magnuson said, these dates may have been noted out of pure curiosity. "It's similar to seeing the first robin, a sign of the season changing. A river breaking up in the spring can be quite a spectacular site," said Magnuson.

7. Along with the later freeze and earlier thaw pattern observed in the Science study, previous research has confirmed an increase in the year-to-year variability of Northern Hemisphere freeze and ice breakup dates during the last half of the 20th century. An increase in extreme climate events like the recent powerful El Nino-La Nina cycles, Magnuson suggested, may be behind this rise in variability. "One of the things that we are beginning to do with these types of data is to separate out the effects of different climate signals, like El Nino. We are optimistic that these long and geographically widespread ice cover records can play some role in sorting out the effects of greenhouse warming as well," said Magnuson.

8. Magnuson and colleagues hope to expand on this part of their analysis in future studies, taking a closer look at interannual variability, and expanding and updating the database to look at other climate oscillations. In particular, they would like to fill in a crucial gap in their study--the last five years. "We would like to know what has happened with these ice records in the recent years, especially in light of other climate data that show a warming trend over this time period," Magnuson said. The researchers have deposited the compiled data from their study in a publicly accessible database, with the hopes that scientists and public policy officials will incorporate the findings in future analyses.

65. What is the best title for paragraph 1 ?
A. Two lakes in records B. Researches should be developed
C. Case of studies D. Global warming's coming
E. Reasons to made records F. Dates are to review complexely
G. Global warming is unevitable H. Correspondence found
K. Climat changes in records L. International cooperation in science
66. What is the best title for paragraph 2 ?
A. Two lakes in records B. Researches should be developed
C. Case of studies D. Global warming's coming
E. Reasons to made records F. Dates are to review complexely
G. Global warming is unevitable H. Correspondence found
K. Climat changes in records L. International cooperation in science
67. What is the best title for paragraph 3 ?
A. Two lakes in records B. Researches should be developed
C. Case of studies D. Global warming's coming
E. Reasons to made records F. Dates are to review complexely
G. Global warming is unevitable H. Correspondence found
K. Climat changes in records L. International cooperation in science
68. What is the best title for paragraph 4 ?
A. Two lakes in records B. Researches should be developed
C. Case of studies D. Global warming's coming
E. Reasons to made records F. Dates are to review complexely
G. Global warming is unevitable H. Correspondence found
K. Climat changes in records L. International cooperation in science
69. What is the best title for paragraph 5 ?
A. Two lakes in records B. Researches should be developed
C. Case of studies D. Global warming's coming
E. Reasons to made records F. Dates are to review complexely
G. Global warming is unevitable H. Correspondence found
K. Climat changes in records L. International cooperation in science
70. What is the best title for paragraph 6 ?
A. Two lakes in records B. Researches should be developed
C. Case of studies D. Global warming's coming
E. Reasons to made records F. Dates are to review complexely
G. Global warming is unevitable H. Correspondence found
K. Climat changes in records L. International cooperation in science
71. What is the best title for paragraph 7 ?
A. Two lakes in records B. Researches should be developed
C. Case of studies D. Global warming's coming
E. Reasons to made records F. Dates are to review complexely
G. Global warming is unevitable H. Correspondence found
K. Climat changes in records L. International cooperation in science
72. What is the best title for paragraph 8 ?
A. Two lakes in records B. Researches should be developed
C. Case of studies D. Global warming's coming
E. Reasons to made records F. Dates are to review complexely
G. Global warming is unevitable H. Correspondence found
K. Climat changes in records L. International cooperation in science
73. The University of Wisconsin has branches in Canada, Finland, Switzerland, Russia, and Japan.
A. True B. False
C. Not Given
74. The date of first freeze corresponds to the date of thaw.
A. True B. False
C. Not Given
75. Global warming could be proved by historical records
A. True B. False
C. Not Given
76. Madonna figure was transported each year between churches.
A. True B. False
C. Not Given
77. Dates of seeing the first robin were found in many records
A. True B. False
C. Not Given
78. Dates of river breaking up are found in many records.
A. True B. False
C. Not Given
79. El Nino-La Nina cycles are different from those in other rivers
A. True B. False
C. Not Given
80. All researches were mainly historians
A. True B. False
C. Not Given


Stolica.ru Рейтинг TOP 100