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Reading comprehension and vocabulary. Test 1.

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Questions 1-10 refer to the following passage.

As viewed from space. Earth's distinguishing characteristicsare its blue waters and
white clouds. Enveloped by an ocean of air consisting of 78%nitrogen and 21% oxygen, the
planet is the only one in our solar system known to harbor life.Circling the Sun at an average
distance of 149 million km (93 million miles). Earth is the thirdplanet from the Sun and the
fifth largest planet in the solar system.
Its rapid spin and molten nickel-iron core give rise to anextensive magnetic field
which, coupled with the atmosphere, shields us from nearly all ofthe harmful radiation
coming from the Sun and other stars. Most meteors burn up in theEarth's atmosphere before
they can strike the surface. The planet's active geologicalprocesses have left no evidence of
the ancient pelting it almost certainly received soon after itwas formed.
The Earth has a single natural satellitethe Moon.

1. Approximately how much of the Earth's atmosphere isnitrogen?
(A) One-fourth
(B) One-half
(C) Three-fourths
(D) All of it
2. Which of the following helps to create Earth's magnetic fields?
(A) Its blue waters
(B) Its nitrogen atmosphere
(C) Its molten metal core
(D) The Moon
3. What two factors help protect the Earth from radiation?
(A) Magnetic field and atmosphere
(B) Rapid spin and molten iron-nickel core
(C) The Sun and the Moon
(D) Blue waters and white clouds
4. In line 2, "consisting" most nearly means
(A) hardening.
(B) containing.
(C) withholding.
(D) shortening
5. Why does the Earth show almost no signs of having been hit bynumerous meteors in the past?
(A) Humans have built over most of the craters.
(B) Most meteors fell into the ocean and not on land.
(C) Earth's magnetic field repeled most meteors.
(D) Earth's natural geologic activity has eliminated most traces.
6. The main idea of this passage is that
(A) there are life-supporting characteristics on Earth.
(B) Earth is predominantly water.
(C) Earth has no common characteristics with other planets.
(D) Earth is the only planet with a moon.
7. The word "distinguishing" as it is used in thisselection means
(A) elevating in nature.
(B) devastating in nature.
(C) characteristics like all other planets.
(D) characteristics that set it apart from other planets.
8. It's probable that the next paragraph would discuss
(A) people on planets.
(B) the solar system as a whole.
(C) the Earth's natural satellitethe Moon.
(D) rings around Saturn.
9. As used in this selection, the word "harbor" issynonymous with
(A) support
(B) surround
(C) water
(D) include
10. This selection leads one to believe that
(A) Earth never gets hit by meteors.
(B) Earth always gets hit by meteors.
(C) Earth was hit by meteors in some past time period.
(D) Earth may be bombarded by meteors in the near future.

Questions 11-20 refer to the following passage

Since life began eons ago, thousands of creatures have come andgone. Some, such as
the dinosaurs, became extinct due to naturally changing ecologicconditions. More recent
threats to life forms are humans and their activities. Man hasdrained marshes, burned
prairies, damned and diverted rivers. Some of the more recentcasualties of man's expansion
have been the dodo, great auk, passenger pigeon, Irish elk, andSteller's sea cow.
Sadly, we can no longer attribute the increasing decline in ourwild animals and plant
species to "natural" processes. Many species are dyingout because of exploitation, habitat
alteration or destruction, pollution, or the introduction of newspecies of plants and animals
to an area. As mandated by Congress, protecting endangeredspecies, and restoring them to
the point where their existence is no longer jeopardized, is theprimary objective of the U.S.
Fish and Wildlife Service's Endangered Species Program.

11. In line 1, "eons" most nearly means
(A) ages.
(B) particles.
(C) animals.
(D) conditions.
12. Which of the following is a form of man's habitat alteration?
(A) Glacial encroachment
(B) Hurricanes
(C) Damned rivers
(D) Snowstorms
13. Which of the following have become extinct due to man'sdestruction ??
(A) African elephants
(B) Irish elk
(C) Giant panda
(D) White bengal
14. Which of the following would be a likely theme for the nextparagraph ?
(A) Naturally changing ecological conditions
(B) Animals that have become extinct
(C) Achievements of the government Endangered Species program
(D) Programs that have destroyed natural habitats
15. In line 6, "attribute" most nearly means
(A) assign.
(B) characteristic.
(C) introduce.
(D) change.
16. The tone of this passage is
(A) nationalistic
(B) pro-wildlife
(C) anti-wildlife
(D) feminist
17. "Habitat alteration" as used in this paragraphmeans
(A) changing clothes.
(B) changing animals' environments.
(C) changing humans' environments.
(D) climate change.
18. According to this passage,
(A) man is the cause of some animal extinction.
(B) animals often bring about their own extinction.
(C) Congress can absolutely end extinction of animals.
(D) a law is more important than human responsibility.
19. Which of the following is NOT a cause of increasing declineof wild animal population?
(A) Exploitation
(B) Pollution
(C) Habitat alteration
(D) Congressional law
20. The primary objective of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service'sEndangered Species Program can be stated as
(A) custodial care of endangered species.
(B) enforcement of Congressional law.
(C) education of the public.
(D) stopping pollution.

Questions 21-30 refer to the following passage.

With the sudden onset of severe psychotic symptoms, theindividual is said to be
experiencing acute schizophrenia. "Psychotic" means outof touch with reality, or unable to
separate real from unreal experiences. Some people have only onesuch psychotic episode;
others have many episodes during a lifetime but lead relativelynormal lives during interim
periods. The individual with chronic (continuous or recurring)schizophrenia often does not
fully recover normal functioning and typically requires long-termtreatment, generally
including medication, to control the symptoms. These symptoms mayinclude hallucinations,
incoherence, delusions, lack of judgment, deterioration of theabilities to reason and feel
emotion, and a lack of interaction between the patient and hisenvironment. The hallucinations
may be of a visual, auditory, or tactile variety. Some chronicschizophrenic patients may
never be able to function without assistance of one sort oranother.

21. In line 3, "episode" most nearly means
(A) program.
(B) experience.
(C) treatment.
(D) assistance.
22. Which of the following is NOT a symptom of schizophrenia?
(A) Hallucinations
(B) Delusions
(C) Incoherence
(D) Vertigo
23. According to the passage, how many different types ofhallucinations are there?
(A) 1
(B) 2
(C) 3
(D) 4
24. In line 4, "interim" most nearly means
(A) temporary.
(B) continuous.
(C) constant.
(D) unreal.
25. In line 10, "tactile" most nearly means
(A) touch.
(B) smell.
(C) sight.
(D) taste.
26. "Acute" as used to describe schizophrenia in thepassage means
(A) chronic.
(B) recurring.
(C) severe.
(D) mild.
27. It can be inferred from the passage that a personexperiencing acute schizophreniamost likely
(A) cannot live without medication.
(B) cannot go on living.
(C) can hold a full-time job.
(D) cannot distinguish real from unreal.
28. According to this passage, thinking that one can fly might bean example of
(A) medicine overdose.
(B) being out of touch with reality.
(C) recovering normal functioning.
(D) symptom control.
29. The passage suggests that the beginning of severe psychoticsymptoms of acute schizophrenia may be any of the followingEXCEPT
(A) debilitating.
(B) sudden.
(C) occurring after a long period of normalcy.
(D) drug-induced.
30. The passage implies that normal life may be possible for thechronic schizophrenic with the help of
(A) medicines.
(B) neurotic episodes.
(C) psychotic episodes.
(D) time.

Questions 31-40 refer to the following passage.

Stress is with us all the time. It comes frommental or emotional activity as well as
physical activity. It is unique and personal to each of us. Sopersonal, in fact, that what may
be relaxing to one person may be stressful to another. Forexample, if you're a busy executive
who likes to keep occupied all of the time, "taking it easy"at the beach on a beautiful day may
feel extremely frustrating, nonproductive, and upsetting. You maybe emotionally distressed
from "doing nothing." Too much emotional stress cancause physical illnesses such as high
blood pressure, ulcers, or even heart disease. Physical stressfrom work or exercise is not
likely to cause such ailments. The truth is that physicalexercise can help you to relax and to
better handle your mental or emotional stress.

31. In line 2, "unique" most nearly means
(A) stressful.
(B) distinctive.
(C) brisk.
(D) relaxing.
32. Which of the following people would find "taking it easy"stressful?
(A) Construction worker
(B) Business executive
(C) Farm worker
(D) Truck driver
33. In line 5, "distressed" most nearly means
(A) upset.
(B) distinctive.
(C) relaxed.
(D) active.
34. In line 8, "ailments" most nearly means
(A) traits.
(C) episodes.
(B) characteristics.
(D) illnesses.
35. Which of the following would be a determinant as to whatpeople find stressful?
(A) Personality
(B) Education
(C) Marital status
(D) Shoe size
36. This article, published by the Department of Health and HumanServices, probably came from the
(A) Federal Bureau of Investigation.
(B) Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration.
(C) Education Administration.
(D) Communicable Diseases Administration,
37. Stress is
(A) optional.
(B) relaxing.
(C) manageable.
(D) the same for all people.
38. A source of stress NOT specifically mentioned in this passageis
(A) educational activity.
(B) physical activity.
(C) mental activity.
(D) emotional activity.
39. Physical problems caused by emotional stress can appear asall of the following except
(A) ulcers.
(B) pregnancy.
(C) heart disease.
(D) high blood pressure.
40. One method mentioned to help handle stress is
(A) physical exercise.
(B) tranquilizers.
(C) drugs.
(D) taking it easy.

Questions 41-50 refer to the following passage.

The "Karat" marking on jewelry tells youwhat proportion of gold is mixed with other
metals. If 14 parts of gold are mixed with 10 parts of base metal,the combination is called
14 Karat (14K) gold. The higher the Karat rating, the higher theproportion of gold in the
object. The lowest Karat gold that can be marketed in the UnitedStates is 10 Karat. Jewelry
does not have to be marked with its Karat quality, but most of itis. If there is a Karat quality
mark, next to it must be the U.S. registered trademark of theperson or company that will stand
behind the mark, as required by the National Gold and SilverStamping Act.

41. In line 1, "proportion" most nearly means
(A) ratio.
(B) mix.
(C) registered.
(D) quality.
42. If a ring is stamped 24K, it has
(A) 204 parts gold.
(B) 24 parts gold.
(C) two and four-tenths parts gold.
(D) 10 parts gold.
43. In line 6, "registered" most nearly means
(A) documented.
(B) marketed.
(C) mixed.
(D) stamped.
44. According to the passage, the phrase "stand behind"most nearly means
(A) not in front.
(B) to the side.
(C) back up.
(D) give up.
45. In line 4, "marketed" most nearly means
(A) engraved.
(B) registered.
(C) mixed.
(D) sold.
46. "Karat," as it used in the jewelry industry, refersto the
(A) jeweler's appraisal.
(B) U.S. registered trademark.
(C) amount of gold mixed with other metals.
(D) money value.
47. Gold which is 10 Karat in proportion
(A) represents the highest grade of gold in the U.S.
(B) cannot be sold in the U.S.
(C) never carries a Karat quality mark.
(D) represents the lowest-grade gold marketable in the U.S.
48. If gold is marked with a Karat quality mark, it must also
(A) bear a national gold and silver stamp.
(B) bear the registered trademark of the entity standing behindthe mark.
(C) bear a "made in the USA" mark.
(D) bear a percentage mark.
49. If the jewelry is marked, 14 parts of gold mixed with 10parts of base metal will always bear
(A) a 14K mark.
(B) a 10K mark.
(C) an 18K mark.
(D) a platinum mark.
50. This paragraph serves the consumer as
(A) important buying information.
(B) a challenge to buy more gold.
(C) a debate over gold prices.
(D) advice about buying silver.

Questions 51-60 refer to the following passage.

Mr. Faugel was convinced that student nervousnesshad affected their scores; to
reduce the anxiety of these students who had already been tested,he gave 22 of them a beta
blocker before readministration of the test. Their scoresimproved significantly. The other 8
students (who did not receive the beta blockers) improved onlyslightly. Second-time test-
takers nationwide had average improvements which were similar tothose in Faugel's non-
beta blocker group.
Beta blockers are prescription drugs which have been around for25 years. These
medications, which interfere with the effects of adrenalin, havebeen used for heart conditions
and for minor stress such as stage fright. Now they are used fortest anxiety. These drugs seem
to help test-takers who have low scores because of test fright,but not those who do not know
the material. Since there can be side effects from these betablockers, physicians are not ready
to prescribe them routinely for all test-takers.

51. In line 2, "reduce" most nearly means
(A) increase.
(B) maximize.
(C) lessen.
(D) build up.
52. Beta blockers have been around since approximately what year?
(A) 1790
(B) 1907
(C) 1950
(D) 1970
53. Where is the only place a person can obtain beta blockers?
(A) Supermarket
(B) Convenience store
(C) Stationary store
(D) Doctor's office
54. In line 8, "interfere" most nearly means
(A) hinder.
(B) aid.
(C) help.
(D) prescribe.
55. Why are beta blockers not prescribed regularly?
(A) Students are expected to do poorly.
(B) There are side effects.
(C) The drugs are only 25 years old.
(D) They cause test anxiety.
56. According to the passage
(A) all people can take beta blockers.
(B) beta blockers are widely prescribed.
(C) beta blockers work only on test anxiety.
(D) beta blockers work only to improve test scores if she test-takertruly knows the material.
57. "Readministration" in this passage refers to
(A) giving the test again to people without administering betablockers.
(B) giving the test again to both groups after beta blockers havebeen administered to one group.
(C) giving the test to both groups of test-takers and then givingthem beta blockers.
(D) giving the beta blockers without retesting.
58. What possible use for beta blockers was NOT discussed in thispassage?
(A) Test anxiety
(B) Pain relief
(C) Minor stress
(D) Heart conditions
59. Beta blockers work on some physical and emotional symptomsbecause they
(A) fool a person into a healthier stance.
(B) interfere with the side effects of adrenalin.
(C) produce side effects worse than the symptoms
(D) primarily change human thought processes.
60. Faugel's research showed that beta blockers given to hissample
(A) increased scores less than the national average.
(B) increased scores the same as the national average.
(C) decreased scores.
(D) increased scores much more than the national average.


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