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Reading comprehension and vocabulary. Test 1.

Questions 1-10 refer to the following passage.

During the past three years, the staff members of the Smithsonian Institution's Family
Folklore Project have interviewed hundreds of persons about their family folklore. To
prepare for these interviews we drew upon our academic backgrounds in folklore and
American studies, and upon our personal backgrounds as members of families. In addition,
we reviewed the major instruction guides in genealogy, oral history, family history, and
folklore fieldwork. Although these publications were all helpful in some way, no single book
was completely adequate since family folklore combines-aspects of all the above disciplines.
Over time we have developed guidelines and questions that have proven successful for us;
we hope that the following suggestions will be helpful to anyone who wishes to collect the
folklore of his or her own family.

1. In line 6, "publications" most nearly means
(A) members.
(B) backgrounds.
(C) schools.
(D) journals.
2. In line 7, "adequate" most nearly means
(A) sufficient.
(B) unhelpful.
(C) boring.
(D) genealogical.
3. What would be the topic of the paragraph that would follow this one?
(A) How to gather family folklore
(B) History of the Smithsonian Institution
(C) A description of genealogy
(D) Useful books on family folklore
4. What can be inferred about the researchers who conducted the interviews?
(A) They were mathematicians and physicists.
(B) They were historians and sociologists.
(C) They had children.
(D) They wrote books.
5. The purpose of this passage is to
(A) motivate.
(B) berate.
(C) instruct.
(D) cajole.
6. The assumption of this passage is that
(A) anyone can successfully interview people about their family folklore with out prior training.
(B) American history is inherent in the family folklore of Americans.
(C) American history and folklore of Americans have no connections.
(D) no guidelines are needed in the interviews.
7. According to the passage, which kind of instructional guide was NOT consulted as a source?
(A) Clinical sociology
(B) Genealogy guides
(C) Oral history
(D) Folklore fieldwork
8. "Academic background" in this passage refers to
(A) life experience.
(B) college/university study.
(C) fieldwork.
(D) travel.
9. One definition of family folklore represents it as
(A) not historical in nature.
(B) not traditional in nature.
(C) not academic in nature.
(D) interdisciplinary in nature.
10. The final decision of the Smithsonian Institution's Family Folklore Project was to
(A) use only a fieldwork guide to proceed with their work.
(B) trust only already published guides on how to proceed.
(C) use only historical accounts on how to collect family folklore.
(D) write their own guidelines on how to collect family folklore.

Questions 11-20 refer to the following passage

The most popular organic gem is the pearl. A pearl is the response of a marine mollusk
to the presence of an irritating impurity accidentally introduced into its body; a cultured pearl
is the result of the intentional insertion of a mother-of-pearl bead into a live mollusk. Whether
introduced accidentally or intentionally, the pearl-making process is the same: the mollusk
coats the irritant with a substance called nacre. Nacre is composed chiefly of calcium
carbonate. Because very few natural pearls are now on the market, most pearls used in fine
jewelry are cultured. These include "Biwa" pearls and most other freshwater pearls. Cultured
pearls are not easily distinguished from natural pearls except by an expert11. Which of the following people could tell the difference between a cultured pearl and an organic pearl?
(A) Scuba diver
(B) Fisherman
(C) Jeweler
(D) Clerk
12. In line 2, "impurity" most nearly means
(A) mollusk.
(B) contaminant.
(C) pearl.
(D) diver.
13. In line 5, "irritant" most nearly means
(A) annoyance.
(B) aid.
(C) relief.
(D) jewelry.
14. What is the chief component of nacre?
(A) Sand
(B) Bead
(C) Calcium carbonate
(D) Biwa
15. In line 3, "intentional" most nearly means
(A) deliberate.
(B) accidental.
(C) unconscious.
(D) forceful.
16. A pearl is
(A) a rock.
(B) a gemstone.
(C) a mineral.
(D) an organic gem.
17. The difference between a pearl and a cultured pearl is the nature of the
(A) color.
(B) introduction of the irritating impurity.
(C) coating material.
(D) irritating impurity
18. Nacre is a substance that is
(A) mechanically manufactured.
(B) the result of laboratory testing.
(C) organically secreted by the mollusk.
(D) present in the chemical composition of freshwater pounds.
19. The main idea in this passage is that
(A) most marketable pearls are cultured because nature does not produse enough of its own to satisfy the market.
(B) cultured pearls are of a higher quality than natural pearls.
(C) there are two major methods of pearl-making.
(D) a natural "drought" of pearl production is taking place.
20. A mollusk, while not defined in this passage, must be
(A) any animal.
(B) a land animal.
(C) the water organism which produces the pearl
(D) all the above

Questions 21-30 refer to the following passage.

From the dawn of civilization, the gaze of humanity has been drawn to the stars. The
stars have been relied upon to direct travelers, to make agricultural predictions, to win wars,
and to awaken love in the hearts of men and women.
Ancient stargazers pondering the nighttime sky saw definite star patterns emerge. The
names for many of these star patterns retain the names given to them by the Greeks which
were most often derived from mythology. The Greeks only knew 48 star pattersn. Today's
astronomers have charted 88 of these patterns, or constellations, which may be viewed from
different parts of the world at different times of the year.

21. Stars have been relied upon for all of the following EXCEPT
(A) as directional aids.
(B) for crop predictions.
(C) as medical cures.
(D) as war omens.
22. In line 5, "retain" most nearly means
(A) keep.
(B) eliminate.
(C) know.
(D) view.
23. Approximately how many newpatterns have been discovered since the time of the ancient Greeks?
(A) 40
(B) 48
(C) 88
(D) 136
24. In line 6, "derived" most nearly means
(A) written.
(B) gazed.
(C) drawn.
(D) learned.
25. Which of the following might share a name with a constellation.?
(A) A U.S. president
(B) A country in the Middle East
(C) An ancient Greek hero
(D) A farmer
26. The passage states that
(A) man never depends on the stars.
(B) stars are only for beautifying our skies.
(C) man has depended on stars at times.
(D) moons are the same as stars.
27. The author states that
(A) only adults are intrigued with the stars and constellations
(B) stars have scientific significance only.
(C) only children are intrigued with the stars and constellations.
(D) people have been intrigued with the stars and constellations since ancient times.
28. "Predictions" in this passge refer to
(A) crop fertility.
(B) war success.
(C) Cupid's progress.
(D) travel directions.
29. The word "charted" in this passage means
(A) admired.
(B) identified according to composition and location.
(C) illustrated.
(D) named.
30. Which two words are used synonymously in the passage?
(A) Humanity-astronomers
(B) Different parts-different times
(C) Stargazers-travelers
(D) Patterns-constellations

Questions 31-40 refer to the following passage.

Try to make the Visitor Center your first stop at any park. There you will find
information on attractions, facilities, and activities such as scenic drives, nature trails, and
historic tours. Descriptive films, literature, and exhibits will acquaint you with the geology,
history, and plant and animal life of the area. The park staff will answer questions about
accommodations, services, and the attractions. Most of the parks described in this book do
not offer meals and lodging.
Many parks can provide assistance for those who have visual, auditory, or other
physical limitations. Most have parking lots, restrooms, and other features that are accessible
to disabled persons. If accessibility is important to you, however, inquire in advance.

31. What do most parks NOT offer?
(A) Lodging
(B) Restrooms
(C) Nature trails
(D) Exhibits
32. Which of the following park areas might have special facilities for a handicapped person?
(A) Nature trail
(B) Historic tour
(C) Restroom
(D) Restaurant
33. Why should the Visitor Center be your first stop?
(A) It will offer detailed information on the park and its activities.
(B) The Visitor Center always has free food.
(C) It is the only place with a bathroom.
(D) The Visitor Center is the only place to buy park passes.
34. In line 3, "descriptive" most nearly means
(A) natural.
(B) comely.
(C) beautiful.
(D) representative.
35. In line 9, "inquire" most nearly means
(A) demand.
(B) ask.
(C) ignore.
(D) pay.
36. In this passage "accessibility" means
(A) availability of admission tickets to certain areas.
(B) availability of park staff to assist people.
(C) the ease with which a physically disabled person can get to and through a park.
(D) in what direction one drives to get to a particular attraction.
37. The implication for handicapped people is that
(A) they are welcome but not provided for in most parks.
(B) they are welcome and provided for in most parks.
(C) they are not really welcome in most parks.
(D) there are no facilities for them in most parks.
38. The background material described includes all the following EXCEPT
(A) interviews with inhabitants.
(B) exhibits.
(C) literature.
(D) films.
39. What is meant by "accommodations"?
(A) Scenic drives-nature trails
(B) Geology-history
(C) Meals-lodging
(D) Plant life-animal life
40. What limitations does the author NOT consider with respect to requiring special assistance?
(A) Visual limitations
(B) Auditory limitations
(C) Physical limitations
(D) Mental limitations

Questions 41-50 refer to the following passage.

The use of asbestos millboard in wall and floor protection is a controversial issue
because of the health hazard of asbestos fibers in the manufacturing, preparation, and
handling of the millboard. The National Fire Protection Association is currently initiating the
process of removing asbestos as a standard protection for reduced clearances. Since the
process is a lengthy one, this new standard will probably not be in effect until early 1981. We
strongly encourage the use of an alternative protection whenever one is available. However,
if you must use the asbestos millboard, use it cautiously. We recommend painting the
asbestos to keep the fibers from coming loose. If the board must be cut, do not inhale the dust;
do the work outdoors, using a breathing mask

41. Where should the millboard be cut?
(A) In a closed room
(B) Outdoors
(C) Under a tarp
(D) Under a clearance
42. What precaution should be taken when cutting millbord?
(A) Wear gloves
(B) Paint the board first
(C) Wear a breathing mask
(D) Wear overalls
43. In line 2, "hazard" most nearly means
(A) danger.
(B) benefit.
(C) aid.
(D) enhancer
44. This passage serves as a(n)
(A) instruction
(B) benefit.
(C) aid
(D) warning.
45. In line 5, "standard" most nearly means
(A) asbestos.
(B) flag.
(C) criterion
(D) millboard
46. The overall implication of the passage is
(A) asbestos is as safe as other building materials.
(B) only touching the asbestos fibers with your hands is harmful.
(C) asbestos can be harmful to one's health.
(D) using asbestos in building materials is all right.
47. The National fire Protection Association is
(A) promoting asbestos as a safe building material.
(B) becoming active in the removal of asbestos as a standard building material.
(C) taking a "wait-and-see" position on asbestos as a building material.
(D) staying out of the asbestos controversy completely.
48. "Controversial" as used in this passage means
(A) without pro and con sides in the question of its use.
(B) an issue about which there are strong opinions on both the pro and con sides.
(C) an issue about which there is agreement.
(D) something no one really cares about.
49. "Inhale" in this passage means
(A) breathe into either nose or mouth.
(B) take in air through eyes.
(C) get fibers under fingernails.
(D) get fibers in open cuts and sores.
50. What can be used as a deterrent to the hazard of asbestos?
(A) Water
(B) Boards
(C) Air
(D) Paint

Questions 51-60 refer to the following passage.

The term "verbal dyspraxia" is used by some scientists and clinicians to describe the
inability to produce the sequential, rapid, and precise movements required for speech.
Nothing is wrong with the child's vocal apparatus, but the child's brain cannot give correct
instructions for the motor movements involved in speech. This disorder is characterized by
many sound omissions. Some verbally dyspraxic children, for instance, speak only in vowels,
making their speech nearly unintelligible. One little boy trying to say "My name is Billy" can
only manage "eye a eh ee-ee." These children also have very slow, halting speech with many
false starts before the right sounds are produced. Their speech errors may be similar to those
children with phonological impairment.

51. In line 3, "apparatus" most nearly means
(A) device.
(B) child.
(C) brain.
(D) speech.
52. In line 4, "characterized" most nearly means
(A) appeared.
(B) described.
(C) emoted.
(D) spoken.
53. What is a characteristic of speech in children with verbal dyspraxia?
(A) Rapid
(B) Clear
(C) Concise
(D) Halting
54. In line 6, "unintelligible" most nearly means
(A) clear.
(B) unstoppable.
(C) unrecognizable.
(D) slow.
55. In line 9, "impairment" most nearly means
(A) repair.
(B) problem.
(C) speech.
(D) instructions.
56. A person suffering from verbal dyspraxia cannot produce
(A) precise speech sounds.
(B) vowel sounds.
(C) more than one sound in a series.
(D) any human sounds.
57. Sound omissions in verbally dyspraxic children are
(A) only occasional.
(B) very rare.
(C) nonexistent.
(D) common.
58. Similarity of speech errors exists between
(A) stroke victims and verbal dyspraxics.
(B) heart attack victims and verbal dyspraxics.
(C) verbal dyspraxics and children with phonological impairmant.
(D) mutes and verbal dyspraxics.
59. The implication about consonants in this passage is that
(A) they are not necessary for intelligent human speech.
(B) without them human speech is unintelligible.
(C) lack of them causes stuttering.
(D) lack of them slows down human speech.
60. The real source in the disability of verbal dyspraxia is
(A) vocal apparatus.
(B) the brain's inability to give instructions for motor movements involved in speech.
(C) the child's personality.
(D) a physical disability.

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